World AIDS Day 2018: 30 questions about HIV/AIDS, answered, for 30 years of World AIDS Day – USA TODAY

What’s the adaptation between HIV and AIDS? What are PrEP and PEP? Listed below are 30 questions, answered, for the thirtieth anniversary of World AIDS Day.

People spherical the area on Saturday will spy the thirtieth annual World AIDS Day, an event aimed at spreading consciousness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

To worth the thirtieth anniversary of the area’s first world health day, listed below are 30 progressively asked questions, myths, details and figures surrounding HIV and AIDS all the scheme by the area.

1. What manufacture HIV and AIDS stand for?

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS stands for bought immunodeficiency syndrome.

2. What’s the adaptation between HIV and AIDS?

HIV is an epidemic that would possibly well lead to AIDS. AIDS is the closing of the three stages of HIV infection.

Based fully on the Centers for Disease Abet an eye on and Prevention, of us within the main stage, acute HIV infection, trip a flu-like illness within 2 to 4 weeks after infection. It can closing a few weeks. Other folks in this stage enjoy enormous amounts of the virus of their blood, and so are more likely to transmit the infection.

The 2d stage, medical latency, marks a duration where the virus is engaging however reproduces handiest at low ranges, HIV.gov says. Other folks in this stage would possibly well presumably no longer trip symptoms, however can light transmit HIV to others. This stage can closing decades, reckoning on remedy, however can additionally be shorter.

AIDS, the Zero.33 stage, results within the most excessive diseases since the virus damages the immune system over time, the CDC says. On life like, of us with AIDS who web no longer web remedy live to yell the tale three years, in step with the CDC.

Treatment at all three stages can halt or gradual symptoms and decrease the menace of transmission, the CDC says.

three. How manufacture you know whereas you occur to enjoy HIV or AIDS?

Attempting out is the best most likely technique to resolve whether you’ve gotten HIV, however symptoms can occur sooner than HIV displays up on a test. Some trip flu-like symptoms – at the side of fever, chills, rash, night time sweats, muscle aches, sore throat, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes or mouth ulcers – within two weeks of infection.

4. How does HIV create you sick?

HIV assaults your immune system by lowering CD4 cells, or T cells, making it more challenging to fight other infections.”Over time, HIV can execute so many of those cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease,” in step with HIV.gov.

Based fully on HIV.gov, the condition turns into AIDS when T cell counts drop beneath 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood, or sure AIDS-connected complications such as excessive infections appear.

5. How is the virus transmitted?

A particular person can turn into contaminated with HIV handiest by sure actions all over which they reach into contact with sure bodily fluids.

Blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk can transmit HIV, in step with the CDC.

“These fluids should reach enthusiastic with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be straight injected into the bloodstream (from a needle or syringe) for transmission to occur,” the CDC says.

Unprotected anal or vaginal sex with someone who has HIV is one in every of two predominant programs the virus is unfold within the United States, in step with HIV.gov. Spend of a execrable needle or syringe is the opposite.

A mother would possibly well presumably lunge the virus on to her youngster at some level of pregnancy, beginning or breastfeeding. It would additionally be reduced in size by being struck by an merchandise execrable with HIV. Other rare however imaginable programs to unfold HIV will likely be chanced on here.

6. Can saliva or mosquitoes unfold HIV?

No. HIV can no longer be handed on by saliva, sweat or tears unless blood from a particular person with HIV is jumbled together. Which technique touching, sharing toilets, kissing and other actions would possibly well presumably no longer unfold the virus. Bugs equivalent to mosquitoes and ticks additionally can no longer unfold it.

7. Can HIV be transmitted by giving blood?

The CDC says contracting HIV in a health care atmosphere is “extremely rare.” Throughout the early years of the HIV crisis within the Nineteen Eighties, conditions of infection by blood transfusion had been more regular, in step with HIV.gov, however “rigorous testing” as of late has drastically reduced the menace.

The National Coronary heart, Lung and Blood Institute says the menace of HIV transmission by a blood transfusion is decrease than that of being killed by lightning.

You would possibly well presumably’t web HIV by giving blood, either, the CDC says.

eight. Are you able to web HIV all once more whereas you occur to’ve gotten already bought HIV?

Plod. HIV superinfection occurs when a particular person with HIV is contaminated with a different strain of the virus, in step with the CDC. Outcomes differ, and some of us can contract a strain that’s proof in opposition to the remedy they’re already taking, the CDC says, however “a hard-to-treat superinfection is rare.”

9. What number of folks spherical the area enjoy HIV?

Based fully on the United Worldwide locations, 36.9 million of us had been dwelling with HIV spherical the area in 2017. Of those, 35.1 million had been adults and 1.eight million had been adolescents. The CDC estimates that 1.1 million of us within the United States had been dwelling with HIV by the discontinue of 2015. Fifteen p.c didn’t know they had been contaminated.

10. What number of folks had been newly contaminated with HIV in 2017?

Worldwide, 1.eight million of us, in step with the United Worldwide locations. In the United States, 38,739 of us had been diagnosed with HIV, in step with the CDC.

Eleven. What number of folks died closing year from HIV/AIDS-connected diseases?

Worldwide, 940,000 of us, the United Worldwide locations says. In the United States, 15,807 of us with an HIV diagnosis died in 2016. The CDC says those deaths would possibly well presumably very smartly be from any reason.

12. How enjoy the numbers of conditions and deaths changed since the HIV/AIDS epidemic began?

For the reason that epidemic began, Seventy seven.three million of us enjoy been contaminated with HIV and 35.4 million enjoy died from HIV/AIDS-connected diseases.

Based fully on the World Health Organization, the 940,000 who died from HIV/AIDS in 2017 worldwide is a Fifty two p.c drop from 2004 and a 34 p.c drop from 2010.

Based fully on U.N. knowledge, the 1.eight million contemporary diagnoses in 2017 used to be a fifty six p.c drop from the two.eight million in 2000.

13. When did the HIV/AIDS epidemic beginning up?

U.S. scientists chanced on the main medical proof for the disease that would possibly well presumably turn into identified as AIDS in 1981, in step with the United Worldwide locations. Chimpanzees in Central Africa enjoy been identified because the source of HIV in humans. Their model of the virus, known as SIV, used to be likely transmitted to humans after which mutated, the CDC says. HIV has existed within the United States since the mid- to gradual Seventies.

14. Bear conditions elevated amid the opioid crisis?

Area is increasing that opioid users sharing needles would possibly well presumably reason an create bigger in HIV conditions.

In 2015, Scott County, Indiana, suffered a pandemic of 181 HIV diagnoses linked to opioid spend, in step with the Kaiser Family Foundation.

Based fully on CDC knowledge cited by the Kaiser Family Foundation, the fragment of HIV infections within the United States tied to intravenous drug spend declined from a excessive of forty p.c in 1990 to handiest 6 p.c in 2015. The fragment spiked in 2015, largely because of the the Indiana oubreak.

Records imply the number dropped abet to pre-2015 ranges the following year.

15. Are some demographics more at menace than others?

Jubilant and bisexual men are the most affected population within the United States, the CDC says.

Sixty-six p.c of contemporary HIV diagnoses in 2017 came from male-to-male sexual contact, in step with the CDC.

Twenty-four p.c came from heterosexual contact; 70 p.c of those diagnosed had been ladies.

Forty-three p.c of the of us diagnosed in 2017 had been shaded or African-American. Twenty-six p.c had been white and 26 p.c had been Hispanic or Latino.

Sixteen. What stigmas exist surrounding HIV/AIDS?

Horror spherical HIV and AIDS has allowed false knowledge to unfold and discrimination in opposition to some of us to develop.

Discrimination essentially essentially based on sexuality, gender, drug spend, sex work and financial location, amongst others, can drastically distress of us who enjoy HIV, the United Worldwide locations warns. Other folks with HIV who gape excessive stigmas are much less likely to appear remedy straight. Stigma can additionally discourage of us from getting examined or disclosing their infections.

In the United States, there are correct protections aimed at combating discrimination in opposition to of us with HIV.

17. Can HIV/AIDS be handled?

Plod. Other folks with HIV can seize a series of substances, known as antiretroviral remedy, or ART, that slows the virus from progressing, retains them healthy for years and drastically reduces their chance of spreading the virus, the CDC says.

18. How does ART work?

Antiretroviral remedy, which generally makes spend of three remedy, is aimed at lowering a particular person’s viral load – the stage of HIV within the blood.

The combo of substances can “maximally suppress the HIV virus and halt the development of HIV disease. ART additionally prevents onward transmission of HIV,” the World Health Organization says.

If the viral load remains undetectable, “you’ve gotten effectively no menace of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner by sex,” the CDC says. The CDC says of us can reach an undetectable viral load within six months. However missing a dose can create bigger the load and the menace of transmitting HIV.

19. What’s the life like lifestyles expectancy with remedy as of late?

An HIV or AIDS diagnosis 30 years within the past generally meant one to two more years of lifestyles, in step with HIV.gov. With remedy, that’s changed.

“This present day, someone diagnosed with HIV and handled sooner than the disease is powerful developed can are dwelling practically so long as someone who does no longer enjoy HIV,” the CDC says.

“Life expectancy in patients starting ART has elevated by about 10 years at some level of the ART expertise,” researchers reported closing year in The Lancet. Their lifestyles expectancy does live decrease than the comfort of the population.

20. Is there a medication?

Now not yet. Researchers are working toward a medication. If a medication had been to be chanced on, it’d likely seize one in every of two kinds, in step with the National Institute of Hypersensitivity and Infectious Ailments.

Viral eradication would point out HIV used to be eliminated from a patient’s body. The come would possess “prodding the virus out of its latent tell so that an enhanced immune system or administered therapies can aim and save away with HIV-contaminated cells,” the NIAID says. Researchers are additionally discovering out gene mutations in sure of us whose immune cells resist HIV.

A functional medication, or sustained ART-free remission, would point out that HIV used to be no longer eliminated, however moderately suppressed to some extent at which day-to-day remedy would no longer be longer required.

21. Who’s Timothy Brown?

Timothy Brown, additionally identified because the Berlin patient, is now and again regarded as the main particular person cured of HIV. Brown, an American dwelling with HIV in Berlin, used to be being handled for leukemia and required a bone marrow transplant, in step with the National Institute of Hypersensitivity and Infectious Ailments. His donor had a genetic mutation for a protein known as CCR5.

“CCR5 exists on the outside of human immune cells, and HIV makes spend of this protein to enter and infect cells,” the institute says. “When CCR5 is dysfunctional or absent because of the a defect within the gene that codes for it, HIV no longer has an effortless technique to contaminate immune cells.”

Attributable to the transplant, Brown’s leukemia used to be cured, and no HIV infection used to be chanced on. Physicians reported the case see within the Fresh England Journal of Treatment in 2009. However bone marrow transplants are intensive, the institute says, and physicians have not been in a location to successfully replicate Brown’s results.

22. Is there a vaccine?

No, however there enjoy been a different of developments. The National Institutes of Health opened the main medical trial with 138 healthy, HIV-negative volunteers in 1987, in step with the National Institute of Hypersensitivity and Infectious Ailments.

In 2016, the NIH announced a vaccine-efficacy trial in South Africa of 5,four hundred of us, the greatest within the nation’s history. Researchers are building on a 2009 success in Thailand, where for the main time ever a vaccine confirmed modest success in combating HIV infections.

23. What are some regular prevention programs?

The CDC advises abstinence from sex, lowering the different of sexual companions and the usage of condoms precisely at any time when you’ve gotten sex as programs to decrease the menace of HIV exposure by sex. The usage of handiest sterile needles, and never sharing them, additionally decrease menace. 

24. What is PrEP and how efficient is it?

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is day-to-day remedy for HIV-negative of us who’re at excessive menace of getting HIV. Based fully on the CDC, it’ll decrease the menace of getting HIV by sex by Ninety p.c and by injection by 70 p.c.

PrEP is no longer a vaccine and would possibly well presumably light no longer be used in preference to condoms and sterile needles, the CDC warns.

25. What is PEP and how efficient is it?

Post-exposure prophylaxis is for an emergency: Likely exposure within the past Seventy two hours. “The sooner you beginning up PEP, the greater,” the CDC says. “Every hour counts.”

PEP contains antiretroviral (ART) medicines, and if prescribed and brought precisely (generally once or twice a day for 28 days), it’ll be efficient, even supposing no longer A hundred%, at combating HIV, the CDC says. However PEP would possibly well presumably light no longer be taken at any time when you’ve gotten sex with out a condom and handiest in emergencies, the CDC says.

26. Ought to light I web examined for HIV?

The CDC recommends each person from ages 13 to sixty four web examined no longer no longer up to once.

Other folks at elevated menace of infection, equivalent to sexually engaging jubilant or bisexual men, of us who enjoy had sex with an HIV-particular partner, of us who enjoy shared needles and sex workers, amongst others would possibly well presumably light web examined more generally.

The CDC recommends testing yearly for folks participating in these elevated-menace behaviors. For sexually engaging jubilant and bisexual men, the CDC says testing every three to six months is expedient.

For of us that are pregnant, and even whereas you occur to are in a monogamous relationship, the CDC recommends testing to create scuttle and to decrease the menace of transmitting HIV to your youngster or partner. The sooner a pregnant lady starts remedy, the much less likely she is to transmit HIV to her youngster.

27. How manufacture I web examined?

Most HIV exams possess blood or oral fluid. Clinics, hospitals, community health companies and products and hundreds other locations provide HIV testing. Home testing equipment is additionally readily available.

HIV does no longer frequently demonstrate up correct away in a test. Your body and the test form resolve how long HIV can seize to be detected. Here’s a expedient manual from the San Francisco AIDS Foundation on testing windows.

For more knowledge on native testing web sites, name 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636) or
lunge to gettested.cdc.gov.

28. What is World AIDS Day?

The World Health Organization first declared World AIDS Day in 1988. It used to be the main world health day. Seen annually on Dec. 1, the day is supposed to have interaction world consciousness of the fight in opposition to HIV, improve for folks with HIV and consider of us which enjoy died from HIV/AIDS-connected diseases.

29. How can I aid on World AIDS day?

Donating money for different organizations combating HIV/AIDS, attending a World AIDS Day event or merely showing cohesion by carrying a red ribbon are all programs to aid within the fight in opposition to HIV/AIDS.

Based fully on UN knowledge, $4.eight billion used to be readily available for low- to heart-earnings countries to fight AIDS in 2000. By 2017, that number used to be $21.three billion.

30. What manufacture the red ribbons signify?

The red ribbon used to be created in 1991 by artists in Fresh York working to create bigger consciousness of HIV/AIDS. The artists saw the red ribbon as an effortless-to-duplicate technique to illustrate compassion for those dwelling with HIV, given the stigma surrounding it.

“They selected red for its boldness, and for its symbolic associations with passion, the center and like,” in step with World AIDS Day organizers.

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